What are the symptoms and signs of Psoriasis?
typically looks like red or pink areas of thickened, raised, and dry skin.
It classically affects areas over the elbows, knees, and scalp. Essentially
any body area may be involved. It tends to be more common in areas of
trauma, repeat rubbing, use, or abrasions.
Psoriasis has many different appearances. It may be small flattened bumps,
large thick plaques of raised skin, red patches, and pink mildly dry skin to
big flakes of dry skin that flake off. Sometimes pulling of one of these
small dry white flakes of skin causes a tiny blood spot on the skin. This is
medically referred to as a special diagnostic sign in psoriasis called the
Auspitz sign. Genital lesions, especially on the head of the penis, are
common. Psoriasis in moist areas like the navel or area between the buttocks
(intergluteal folds) may look like flat red patches. Scalp, it may look like
severe dandruff with dry flakes and red areas of skin. It may be difficult
to tell the difference between scalp psoriasis and seborrhea (dandruff).
Variants of psoriasis include
Plaque psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris) :
- Flexural psoriasis
It is the most common form of psoriasis. It affects 80 to 90% of people
with psoriasis. The rash of Plaque psoriasis typically appears as raised
areas of inflamed skin covered with silvery white scaly skin. Approximately,
9 out of 10 people with psoriasis have plaque psoriasis up to 30% of people
affected with plaque psoriasis can have psoriatic arthritis.
Flexural psoriasis (inverse psoriasis):
In this form psoriasisappears as smooth inflamed patches of skin. It occurs
in skin folds, particularly around the genitals (between the thigh and
groin), the armpits, under an overweight stomach, and under the breasts
(inframammary fold). It is aggravated by friction and sweat, and is
vulnerable to fungal infections.
Numerous small round spots characterize guttate psoriasis. These numerous
spots of psoriasis appear over large areas of the body, such as the trunk,
limbs, and scalp. Guttate psoriasis is can be associated with streptococcal
In this variant psoriasis appear as raised bumps that are filled with
non-infectious pus (pustules). The skin under and surrounding the pustules
is red and tender. Pustular psoriasis can be localised, commonly to the
hands and feet (palmoplantarpustulosis), or generalised with widespread
patches occurring randomly on any part of the body.
It produces a variety of changes in the appearance of finger and toenails.
These changes include discolouring under the nail plate, pitting of the
nails, lines going across the nails, thickening of the skin under the nail,
and the loosening (onycholysis) and crumbling of the nail.
It involves joint and connective tissue inflammation. Psoriatic arthritis
can affect any joint but is most common in the joints of the fingers and
toes. This can result in a sausage-shaped swelling of the fingers and toes
known as dactylitis. Psoriatic arthritis can also affect the hips, knees and
spine (spondylitis). About 10-15% of people who have psoriasis also have